COVID 19 Update

The Global War Against Bacteria and Viruses | Download Presentation Deck

Public Places

Health Care

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Microbes, Bacteria and Viruses

Hospital Acquired Infections ("HAIS")

Restaurants and Manufacturers

  • Free weights in a fitness facility have 362 X more germs than a toilet seat
  • A shopping cart handle can be home to 11 million microorganisms, including those commonly present on raw meat

  • Approximately 2 million U.S. patients suffer from HAIs annually, and nearly 90,000 of them die*
  • 80% of HAIs are suspected to be caused by high-touched surfaces

  • Quick service restaurants are facing public backlash for patron illnesses caused by cross-contamination forcing restaurant shutdowns
  • Manufacturers of consumer products are looking for solutions to avoid mold and mildew growth
  • * Economic Burden of Healthcare-Associated Infections: An American Perspective, E Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2009 Oct; 9(5): 417–422,Patricia W. Stone

    Media & Research


    1. Neeltje van Doremalen, Trenton Bushmaker, Dylan H. Morris, Myndi G. Holbrook, Amandine Gamble, Brandi N. Williamson, Azaibi Tamin, Jennifer L. Harcourt, Natalie J. Thornburg, Susan I. Gerber, James O. Lloyd-Smith, Emmie de Wit, Vincent J. Munster. Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. New England Journal of Medicine, 2020; DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2004973
    2. Harold T. Michels, C. William Keevil, Cassandra D. Salgado, Michael G. Schmidt. From Laboratory Research to a Clinical Trial: Copper Alloy Surfaces Kill Bacteria and Reduce Hospital-Acquired Infections. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 2015; DOI: 10.1177/1937586715592650
    3. Sarah L. Warnes, Zoë R. Little, C. William Keevil. Human Coronavirus 229E Remains Infectious on Common Touch Surface Materials. American Society for Microbiology, 2015; DOI:
    4. Warnes, S. L., Caves, V., Keevil, C. W. (2012). Mechanism of copper surface toxicity in Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Salmonella involves immediate membrane depolarization followed by slower rate of DNA destruction which differs from that observed for Gram-positive bacteria. Environmental Microbiology, 14, 1730–1743. DOI:
    5. Weaver, L., Noyce, J. O., Michels, H. T., Keevil, C. W. (2010). Potential action of copper surfaces on meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 109, 2200–2205. DOI:

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